Depleted levels of iron may lead to anemia and weakened immune function. In
the event of anemia, symptoms include dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath,
pale skin color, and possibly irregular heartbeat.
Reduced levels of melatonin in the body have been associated with sleep
disturbances and jet lag.
Vitamin B9 (Folic
Low levels of folic acid have been linked to anemia, heart disease, and birth
Signs and symptoms of zinc deficiency include loss of appetite or sense of
taste, growth retardation, skin changes, and increased susceptibility to
The selected depletions information presented here identifies some of the
nutrients that may be depleted by certain medications. The signs and symptoms
associated with nutrient deficiency may also indicate conditions other than
nutrient deficiency. If you are experiencing any of the signs or symptoms
mentioned, it does not necessarily mean that you are nutrient deficient.
Nutrient depletion depends upon a number of factors, including your medical
history, diet, and lifestyle as well as the length of time you have been taking
the medication. Please consult your healthcare provider; he or she can best
assess and address your individual healthcare needs, and determine if you are at
risk for nutrient depletions from these medications as well as others not listed
Ames BN. Micronutrient deficiencies: A major cause of DNA damage. Ann NY
Acad Sci. 2000;889:87-106.
Arendt J, Bojkowski C, Franey C, Wright J, Marks V. Immunoassay of
6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate in human plasma and urine: abolition of the urinary
24-hour rhythm with atenolol. J Clin Endocrin Metab.
Avery D, Lenz M, Landis C. Guidelines for prescribing melatonin. Ann
Baggott, JE, et al. Inhibition of folate-dependent enzymes by non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs. Biochem. J. 282(Pt.I):197-202, 1992.
Balogh Z, El-Ghobarey AF, Fell GS, et al. Plasma zinc and its relationship to
clinical symptoms and drug treatment in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum
Bertschinger P, Zala GF, Fried M. [Effect of non-steroidal antirheumatic
agents on the gastrointestinal tract: clinical aspects and pathophysiology].
Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1996;126(37):1566-1568.
Bjarnason I, Macpherson AJ. Intestinal toxicity of non-steroidal
anti-inflammatory drugs. Pharmacol Ther. 1994;62(1-2):145-157.
Covington T, ed. Nonprescription Drug Therapy Guiding Patient
Self-Care. St. Louis, Mo: Facts and Comparisons; 1999: 467-545.
Davies NM. Toxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the large
intestine. Dis Colon Rectum. 1995;38(12):1311-1321.
Elling H, Kiilerich S, Sabro J, Elling P. Influence of a non-steroid
anti-rheumatic drug on serum and urinary zinc in healthy volunteers. Scand J
Falchuk KH. Disturbances in Trace Elements. In: Fauci A, Braunwald E,
Isselbacher KJ, et al, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine.
14th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies Health Professional
Hambidge M. Human zinc deficiency. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S
Rommell T, Demisch L. Influence of chronic beta-adrenoreceptor blocker
treatment on melatonin secretion and sleep quality in patients with essential
hypertension. J Neural Transm [Gen Sect].
Review Date: October 2000
Reviewed By: All depletions monographs have been reviewed by a team of experts including
Derrick M. DeSilva, Jr., MD, Raritan Bay Medical Center, Perth Amboy, NJ;
Jacqueline A. Hart, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, Newton-Wellesley
Hospital, Harvard University and Senior Medical Editor, A.D.A.M., Inc., Boston,
MA; John Hinze, PharmD, NMD, Woodbine, IA; Ruth Marlin, MD, Medical Director and
Director of Medical Education, Preventive Medicine Research Institute,
Sausalito, CA; Brian T Sanderoff, PD, BS in Pharmacy, Clinical Assistant
Professor, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy; President, Your
Prescription for Health, Owings Mills, MD; Leonard Wisneski, MD, FACP, George
Washington University, Rockville, MD; Ira Zunin, MD, MPH, MBA, President and
Chairman, Hawaii State Consortium for Integrative Medicine, Honolulu,
The publisher does not accept any responsibility for the accuracy of
the information or the consequences arising from the application, use, or misuse
of any of the information contained herein, including any injury and/or damage
to any person or property as a matter of product liability, negligence, or
otherwise. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made in regard to the contents
of this material. No claims or endorsements are made for any drugs or compounds
currently marketed or in investigative use. This material is not intended as a
guide to self-medication. The reader is advised to discuss the information
provided here with a doctor, pharmacist, nurse, or other authorized healthcare
practitioner and to check product information (including package inserts)
regarding dosage, precautions, warnings, interactions, and contraindications
before administering any drug, herb, or supplement discussed