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Table of Contents > Herbs > Devil's Claw
Devil's Claw
Botanical Name:  Harpagophytum procumbens
 
Overview
What's It Made Of?
Available Forms
How to Take It
Precautions
Possible Interactions
Supporting Research

Overview

Native to southern Africa, devil's claw (Harpagophytum procumbens) is named for the miniature hooks that cover its fruit. For thousands of years, the Khoisan peoples of the Kalahari Desert have used devil's claw root in remedies to treat pain and complications of pregnancy and in topical ointments to heal sores, boils, and other skin problems. Since its introduction to Europe from Africa in the early 1900s, dried roots have been used to restore appetite, relieve heartburn, and reduce pain and inflammation. In fact, mounting evidence suggests that devil's claw root may help relieve pain and inflammation in people with arthritis and other painful disorders, although the mechanism of action (in other words, how it reduces pain and swelling) is not well understood yet.

Osteoarthritis
Several studies have found that taking devil's claw for several months substantially reduces pain and improves physical functioning in people with osteoarthritis. In a large, well-designed 4-month study including 122 people with knee and hip osteoarthritis, devil's claw root powder reduced pain and improved functional ability as effectively as standard doses of a leading European medication for osteoarthritis. Additionally, those who received devil's claw experienced fewer side effects and required fewer pain-reducing medications throughout the study.

Back and Neck Pain
Although study results have been somewhat conflicting, evidence also suggests that devil's claw may provide relief from low back and neck pain. In a small study including 63 people with mild to moderate back, neck, and/or shoulder pain, four weeks of treatment with a standardized extract of devil's claw root provided moderate relief from muscle pain. In a larger study including 197 men and women with chronic low back pain, those who received daily doses of a commercialized devil's claw extract every day for a month reported experiencing less pain and needing fewer pain-killing medications than those who received placebo.

Other
In addition to the treatment of these and other painful disorders, many professional herbalists consider devil's claw to be useful for upset stomach, loss of appetite, headaches, allergies, and fever. Topical preparations of devil's claw are also applied to the surface of the skin to heal sores, ulcers, boils, and skin lesions.

Plant Description
Devil's claw does not have an odor, but it contains substances that make it taste bitter. It is a leafy perennial with branching roots and shoots. It has secondary roots, or tubers, that grow out of the main roots. The roots and tubers are used for medicinal purposes.


What's It Made Of?

Devil's claw contains iridoid glycosides, substances believed to have strong anti-inflammatory effects. Harpagoside (one type of iridoid) is highly concentrated in devil's claw root and has been shown in some laboratory studies to have potent pain-relieving and anti-inflammatory properties.


Available Forms

Whole or ground devil's claw roots are available as well as capsules, tablets, liquid extracts, and topical ointments. Teas (infusions) can be made from dried devil's claw root.


How to Take It

Pediatric

There are no known scientific reports on the pediatric use of devil's claw. Therefore, it is not currently recommended for children.

Adult

  • Dried tuber or dried root powder: 100 to 250 mg three times a day
  • Capsules containing dried root powder: 100 to 250 mg three times a day
  • Liquid extract (1:1 in 25 percent alcohol): 2 to 7 drops three times a day
  • Tincture (1:5 in 25 percent alcohol): 10 to 30 drops three times a day

Precautions

The use of herbs is a time-honored approach for strengthening the body and treating disease. Herbs, however, contain active substances that can trigger side effects and interact with other herbs, supplements, or medications. For these reasons, herbs should be taken with care, under the supervision of a practitioner knowledgeable in the field of botanical medicine.

Devil's claw is nontoxic and safe, with virtually no side effects if taken at the recommended therapeutic dose for short periods of time. However, high doses can cause mild gastrointestinal problems in some individuals and it is not clear whether devil's claw becomes toxic if taken for long periods of time.

Individuals with stomach ulcers, duodenal ulcers, or gallstones should not take devil's claw unless recommended by a health care provider.

Safety of Devil's Claw for pregnant and breastfeeding women is not known; therefore, it should be avoided during those times.


Possible Interactions

Warfarin
Devil's claw may interact with warfarin (a blood-thinning medication) and cause bruising or bleeding disorders. For this reason, individuals taking warfarin should not use devil's claw without first talking to a healthcare provider.


Supporting Research

Baghdikian B, Lanhers M, Fleurentin J, et al. An analytical study, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of Harpagophytum procumbens and Harpagophytum zeyheri. Planta Med. 1997;63:171-176.

Blumenthal M, Goldberg A, Brinckmann J. Herbal Medicine: Expanded Commission E Monographs. Newton, MA: Integrative Medicine Communications; 2000:84-87.

Brinker F. Herb Contraindications and Drug Interactions. 2nd ed. Sandy, OR: Eclectic Medical Publications; 1998:66.

Chantre P, Cappelaere A, Leblan D, Guedon D, Vandermander J, Fournie B. Efficacy and tolerance of Harpagophytum procumbens versus diacerhein in treatment of osteoarthritis. Phytomedicine. 2000;7(3):177-83.

Chrubasik S, Junck H, Breitschwerdt H, Conradt C, Zappe H. Effectiveness of Harpagophytum extract WS 1531 in the treatment of exacerbation of low back pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 1999;16(2):118-129.

Chrubasik S, Sporer F, Dillmann-Marschner R, Friedmann A, Wink M. Physiochemical properties of harpagoside and its in vitro release from Harpagophytum procumbens extract tablets. Phytomedicine. 2000;6(6):469-473.

Ernst E, Chrubasik S. Phyto-anti-inflammatories. A systematic review of randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2000;26(1):13-27.

Foster S, Tyler VE. Tyler's Honest Herbal. 4th ed. New York: The Haworth Herbal Press; 1999:139-140.

Gobel H, Heinze A, Ingwersen M, Niederberger U, Gerber D. Effects of Harpagophytum procumbens LI 174 (devil's claw) on sensory, motor und vascular muscle reagibility in the treatment of unspecific back pain. [German] Schmerz. 2001;15(1):10-18.

Lanhers MC, Fleurentin J, Mortier F, Vinche A, Younos C. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of an aqueous extract of Harpagophytum procumbens. Planta Med. 1992;58:117-123.

Leblan D, Chantre P, Fournie B. Harpagophytum procumbens in the treatment of knee and hip osteoarthritis. Four-month results of a prospective, multicenter, double-blind trial versus diacerhein. Joint Bone Spine. 2000;67(5):462-467.

Moussard C, Alber D, Toubin M, Thevenon N, Henry JC. A drug used in traditional medicine, Harpagophytum procumbens: no evidence for NSAID-like effect on whole blood eicosanoid production in human. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1992;46:283-286.

Occhiuto F, Circosta C, Ragusa S, Ficarra P, Costa De Pasquale R. A drug used in traditional medicine: Harpagophytum procumbens DC. IV. Effects on some isolated muscle preparations. J Ethnopharmacol. 1985;13:201-208.

Rotblatt M, Ziment I. Evidence-Based Herbal Medicine. Philadelphia, PA: Hanley & Belfus, Inc; 2002:149-153.

Schulz V, Hänsel R, Tyler VE. Rational Phytotherapy: A Physician's Guide to Herbal Medicine. 3rd ed. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag; 1998.

Soulimani R, Younos C, Mortier F, et al. The role of stomach digestion on the pharmacological activity of plant extracts, using as an example extracts of Harpagophytum procumbens. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1994;72(12):1532-1536.

Whitehouse L, Znamirowski M, Paul CJ. Devil's Claw (Harpagophytum procumbens): no evidence for anti-inflammatory activity in the treatment of arthritic disease. Can Med Assoc J. 1983;129:249-251.


Review Date: April 2002
Reviewed By: Participants in the review process include: Jacqueline A. Hart, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Harvard University and Senior Medical Editor Integrative Medicine, Boston, MA; Gary Kracoff, RPh (Pediatric Dosing section February 2001), Johnson Drugs, Natick, MA; Enrico Liva, ND, RPh, Vital Nutrients, Middletown, CT; Anne McClenon, ND (April 1999), Compass Family Health Center, Plymouth, MA; Steven Ottariono, RPh (Pediatric Dosing section February 2001), Veteran's Administrative Hospital, Londonderry, NH; David Winston, Herbalist (April 1999), Herbalist and Alchemist, Inc., Washington, NJ; Tom Wolfe, P.AHG (April 1999), Smile Herb Shop, College Park, MD. All interaction sections have also been reviewed by a team of experts including Joseph Lamb, MD (July 2000), The Integrative Medicine Works, Alexandria, VA;Brian T Sanderoff, PD, BS in Pharmacy (March 2000), Clinical Assistant Professor, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy; President, Your Prescription for Health, Owings Mills, MD; R. Lynn Shumake, PD (March 2000), Director, Alternative Medicine Apothecary, Blue Mountain Apothecary & Healing Arts, University of Maryland Medical Center, Glenwood, MD; Ira Zunin, MD, MPH, MBA (July 2000), President and Chairman, Hawaii State Consortium for Integrative Medicine, Honolulu, HI.

Copyright © 2004 A.D.A.M., Inc

The publisher does not accept any responsibility for the accuracy of the information or the consequences arising from the application, use, or misuse of any of the information contained herein, including any injury and/or damage to any person or property as a matter of product liability, negligence, or otherwise. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made in regard to the contents of this material. No claims or endorsements are made for any drugs or compounds currently marketed or in investigative use. This material is not intended as a guide to self-medication. The reader is advised to discuss the information provided here with a doctor, pharmacist, nurse, or other authorized healthcare practitioner and to check product information (including package inserts) regarding dosage, precautions, warnings, interactions, and contraindications before administering any drug, herb, or supplement discussed herein.

 
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