A deficiency of the antioxidant coenzyme Q10 may be associated with long-term
conditions including heart disease and high blood pressure. Symptoms of
deficiency include gingivitis, and weakened immune
Magnesium deficiency affects calcium and vitamin D levels in the blood and
may be associated with muscle cramps, heart irregularities, high blood pressure,
diabetes, and osteoporosis (bone loss).
Symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency may include weakness,
nervousness, insomnia, mental confusion, irritability, and anemia. Long-term low
levels of this nutrient may also increase the risk of heart disease as well as
colon and prostate cancers.
The selected depletions information presented here identifies some of the
nutrients that may be depleted by certain medications. The signs and symptoms
associated with nutrient deficiency may also indicate conditions other than
nutrient deficiency. If you are experiencing any of the signs or symptoms
mentioned, it does not necessarily mean that you are nutrient deficient.
Nutrient depletion depends upon a number of factors, including your medical
history, diet, and lifestyle as well as the length of time you have been taking
the medication. Please consult your healthcare provider; he or she can best
assess and address your individual healthcare needs, and determine if you are at
risk for nutrient depletions from these medications as well as others not listed
Ames BN. Micronutrient deficiencies: A major cause of DNA damage. Ann NY
Acad Sci. 2000;889:87-106.
Cashman K, Flynn A. Optimal nutrition: calcium, magnesium and phosphorus.
Proc Nutr Soc. 1999;58:477-487.
Chan A, Reichmann H, Kogel A, et al. Metabolic changes in patients with
mitochondrial myopathies and effects of coenzyme Q10 therapy. J Neurol.
Covington T, ed. Nonprescription Drug Therapy Guiding Patient
Self-Care. St Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons; 1999:467-545.
Folkers K, Morita M, McRee J Jr. The activities of coenzyme Q10 and vitamin
B6 for immune responses. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1993;
Kamikawa T, Kobayashi A, Yamashita T, et al. Effects of coenzyme Q10 on
exercise tolerance in chronic stable angina pectoris. Am J Cardiol.
Munkholm H, Hansen HH, Rasmussen K. Coenzyme Q10 treatment in serious heart
Nakamura R, Littarru GP, Folkers R, et al. Study of CoQ10-enzymes in gingiva
from patients with periodontal disease and evidence for a deficiency of coenzyme
Q10. Proc Natl Acad SciUSA. 1974;71(4):1456-1460.
National Research Council. Recommended Dietary Allowances.
10th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1989.
Raskin NH.and Rishman RA. Pyridoxine-deficiency neuropathy due to
hydralazine. N Engl J Med. 1965;273:1182-1185.
Roe, D.A. Diet and Drug Interactions. New York, Van Nostrand Reinhold,
p. 150, 1989.
Singh RB, Niaz MA, Rastogi SS, et al. Effect of hydrosoluble coenzyme Q10 on
blood pressure and insulin resistance in hypertensive patients with coronary
heart disease. J Hum Hypertens. 1999;13(3):203
Singh RB, Wander GS, Rastogi A, et al. Randomized, double-blind
placebo-controlled trial of coenzyme Q10 in patients with acute myocardial
infarction. Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. 1998;12(4):347-353.
Wilson JD. Vitamin deficiency and excess. In: Fauci AS, Braunwald E,
Isselbacher KJ, et al, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine.
14th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies Health Professional
Review Date: October 2000
Reviewed By: All depletions monographs have been reviewed by a team of experts including
Derrick M. DeSilva, Jr., MD, Raritan Bay Medical Center, Perth Amboy, NJ;
Jacqueline A. Hart, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, Newton-Wellesley
Hospital, Harvard University and Senior Medical Editor, A.D.A.M., Inc., Boston,
MA; John Hinze, PharmD, NMD, Woodbine, IA; Ruth Marlin, MD, Medical Director and
Director of Medical Education, Preventive Medicine Research Institute,
Sausalito, CA; Brian T Sanderoff, PD, BS in Pharmacy, Clinical Assistant
Professor, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy; President, Your
Prescription for Health, Owings Mills, MD; Leonard Wisneski, MD, FACP, George
Washington University, Rockville, MD; Ira Zunin, MD, MPH, MBA, President and
Chairman, Hawaii State Consortium for Integrative Medicine, Honolulu,
The publisher does not accept any responsibility for the accuracy of
the information or the consequences arising from the application, use, or misuse
of any of the information contained herein, including any injury and/or damage
to any person or property as a matter of product liability, negligence, or
otherwise. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made in regard to the contents
of this material. No claims or endorsements are made for any drugs or compounds
currently marketed or in investigative use. This material is not intended as a
guide to self-medication. The reader is advised to discuss the information
provided here with a doctor, pharmacist, nurse, or other authorized healthcare
practitioner and to check product information (including package inserts)
regarding dosage, precautions, warnings, interactions, and contraindications
before administering any drug, herb, or supplement discussed