Magnesium deficiency affects calcium and vitamin D levels in the body and may
be associated with muscle cramps, irregular heartbeat, high blood pressure,
diabetes, and osteoporosis (bone loss).
Symptoms of depleted levels of thiamine include weakness, fatigue, anorexia,
constipation, memory loss, confusion, and depression. Deficiency may lead to
beriberi, a condition characterized by inflammation of nerves, heart
irregularities, and fluid retention.
Cashman K, Flynn A. Optimal nutrition: calcium, magnesium and phosphorus.
Proc Nutr Soc. 1999;58:477-487.
Covington T, ed. Nonprescription Drug Therapy Guiding Patient
Self-Care. St Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons; 1999:467-545.
Schwinger RH, Erdmann E. Heart failure and electrolyte disturbances.
Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 1992;14(4):315-325.
Zangen A, Botzer D, Zangen R, Shainberg A. Furosemide and digoxin inhibit
thiamine uptake in cardiac cells. Eur J Pharmacol.
Review Date: October 2000
Reviewed By: All depletions monographs have been reviewed by a team of experts including
Derrick M. DeSilva, Jr., MD, Raritan Bay Medical Center, Perth Amboy, NJ;
Jacqueline A. Hart, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, Newton-Wellesley
Hospital, Harvard University and Senior Medical Editor, A.D.A.M., Inc., Boston,
MA; John Hinze, PharmD, NMD, Woodbine, IA; Ruth Marlin, MD, Medical Director and
Director of Medical Education, Preventive Medicine Research Institute,
Sausalito, CA; Brian T Sanderoff, PD, BS in Pharmacy, Clinical Assistant
Professor, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy; President, Your
Prescription for Health, Owings Mills, MD; Leonard Wisneski, MD, FACP, George
Washington University, Rockville, MD; Ira Zunin, MD, MPH, MBA, President and
Chairman, Hawaii State Consortium for Integrative Medicine, Honolulu,
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