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Table of Contents > Depletions > Anti-inflammatory Medications, ...
Anti-inflammatory Medications
Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs)

  • Diclofenac
    (Cataflam® Oral; Solaraze™ Topical; Voltaren® Ophthalmic; Voltaren® Oral; Voltaren®-XR Oral)
  • Diflunisal
  • Etodolac
    (Lodine®; Lodine® XL)
  • Fenoprofen
  • Ibuprofen
    (Advil® Migraine Liqui-Gels [OTC]; Advil®[OTC]; Children's Advil® Oral Suspension [OTC]; Children's Motrin® Oral Suspension [OTC]; Genpril®[OTC]; Haltran®[OTC]; Junior Strength Motrin®[OTC]; Menadol®[OTC]; Midol® IB [OTC]; Motrin®; Motrin® IB [OTC]; Motrin® Migraine Pain [OTC]; Nuprin®[OTC])
  • Indomethacin
  • Ketoprofen
    (Actron®[OTC]; Orudis®; Orudis® KT [OTC]; Oruvail®)
  • Ketorolac Tromethamine
    (Acular® Ophthalmic; Toradol® Injection; Toradol® Oral)
  • Meclofenamate
  • Nabumetone
  • Naproxen
    (Aleve®[OTC]; Anaprox®; EC Naprosyn®; Naprelan®; Naprosyn®)
  • Oxaprozin
  • Piroxicam
  • Sulindac
  • Tolmetin
    (Tolectin®; Tolectin® DS)


Depleted levels of iron may lead to anemia and weakened immune function. In the event of anemia, symptoms include dizziness, fatigue, shortness of breath, pale skin color, and possibly irregular heartbeat.


Reduced levels of melatonin in the body have been associated with sleep disturbances and jet lag.

Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)

Low levels of folic acid have been linked to anemia, heart disease, and birth defects.


Signs and symptoms of zinc deficiency include loss of appetite or sense of taste, growth retardation, skin changes, and increased susceptibility to infection.

Editorial Note

The selected depletions information presented here identifies some of the nutrients that may be depleted by certain medications. The signs and symptoms associated with nutrient deficiency may also indicate conditions other than nutrient deficiency. If you are experiencing any of the signs or symptoms mentioned, it does not necessarily mean that you are nutrient deficient. Nutrient depletion depends upon a number of factors, including your medical history, diet, and lifestyle as well as the length of time you have been taking the medication. Please consult your healthcare provider; he or she can best assess and address your individual healthcare needs, and determine if you are at risk for nutrient depletions from these medications as well as others not listed here.

Supporting Research

Ames BN. Micronutrient deficiencies: A major cause of DNA damage. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2000;889:87-106.

Arendt J, Bojkowski C, Franey C, Wright J, Marks V. Immunoassay of 6-hydroxymelatonin sulfate in human plasma and urine: abolition of the urinary 24-hour rhythm with atenolol. J Clin Endocrin Metab. 1985;60:1166-1173.

Avery D, Lenz M, Landis C. Guidelines for prescribing melatonin. Ann Med. 1998;30:122-130.

Baggott, JE, et al. Inhibition of folate-dependent enzymes by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Biochem. J. 282(Pt.I):197-202, 1992.

Balogh Z, El-Ghobarey AF, Fell GS, et al. Plasma zinc and its relationship to clinical symptoms and drug treatment in rheumatoid arthritis. Ann Rheum Dis. 1980;39:329-332.

Bertschinger P, Zala GF, Fried M. [Effect of non-steroidal antirheumatic agents on the gastrointestinal tract: clinical aspects and pathophysiology]. Schweiz Med Wochenschr. 1996;126(37):1566-1568.

Bjarnason I, Macpherson AJ. Intestinal toxicity of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Pharmacol Ther. 1994;62(1-2):145-157.

Covington T, ed. Nonprescription Drug Therapy Guiding Patient Self-Care. St. Louis, Mo: Facts and Comparisons; 1999: 467-545.

Davies NM. Toxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the large intestine. Dis Colon Rectum. 1995;38(12):1311-1321.

Elling H, Kiilerich S, Sabro J, Elling P. Influence of a non-steroid anti-rheumatic drug on serum and urinary zinc in healthy volunteers. Scand J Rheumatol. 1980;9:161-163.

Falchuk KH. Disturbances in Trace Elements. In: Fauci A, Braunwald E, Isselbacher KJ, et al, eds. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. 14th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies Health Professional Division; 1998:490-491.

Hambidge M. Human zinc deficiency. J Nutr. 2000;130(5S Suppl):1344S-1349S.

Rommell T, Demisch L. Influence of chronic beta-adrenoreceptor blocker treatment on melatonin secretion and sleep quality in patients with essential hypertension. J Neural Transm [Gen Sect]. 1994;95:39-48.

Review Date: October 2000
Reviewed By: All depletions monographs have been reviewed by a team of experts including Derrick M. DeSilva, Jr., MD, Raritan Bay Medical Center, Perth Amboy, NJ; Jacqueline A. Hart, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Harvard University and Senior Medical Editor, A.D.A.M., Inc., Boston, MA; John Hinze, PharmD, NMD, Woodbine, IA; Ruth Marlin, MD, Medical Director and Director of Medical Education, Preventive Medicine Research Institute, Sausalito, CA; Brian T Sanderoff, PD, BS in Pharmacy, Clinical Assistant Professor, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy; President, Your Prescription for Health, Owings Mills, MD; Leonard Wisneski, MD, FACP, George Washington University, Rockville, MD; Ira Zunin, MD, MPH, MBA, President and Chairman, Hawaii State Consortium for Integrative Medicine, Honolulu, HI.

Copyright © 2004 A.D.A.M., Inc

The publisher does not accept any responsibility for the accuracy of the information or the consequences arising from the application, use, or misuse of any of the information contained herein, including any injury and/or damage to any person or property as a matter of product liability, negligence, or otherwise. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made in regard to the contents of this material. No claims or endorsements are made for any drugs or compounds currently marketed or in investigative use. This material is not intended as a guide to self-medication. The reader is advised to discuss the information provided here with a doctor, pharmacist, nurse, or other authorized healthcare practitioner and to check product information (including package inserts) regarding dosage, precautions, warnings, interactions, and contraindications before administering any drug, herb, or supplement discussed herein.


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