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Table of Contents > Depletions > Antibiotic Medications, Sulfa Drugs
Antibiotic Medications
Antibiotic Combination: Sulfa Drugs

  • Co-Trimoxazole
    (no brand names listed)
  • Sulfamethoxazole
    (no brand names listed)
  • Trimethoprim-Sulfamethoxazole
    (no brand names listed)
  • Trimethoprim
    (no brand names listed)


Depletions
Probiotics; Bifidobacteria bifidum; Lactobacillus Acidophilus; Saccaromyces boulardii

Reducing the number of probiotic organisms in the gastrointestinal tract may decrease the body's ability to resist infections and diseases. Symptoms of deficiency include gas, abdominal distress, diarrhea, and yeast infections.


Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

Symptoms of vitamin B2 deficiency may include cracks at the corners of the mouth, inflammation of the skin, growth retardation, and impaired wound healing.


Vitamin B9 (Folic Acid)

Low levels of folic acid have been linked to anemia, heart disease, birth defects, and colon cancer.


Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin)

Symptoms of vitamin B12 deficiency are rare because it takes years to develop complications associated with long-term depletion of this nutrient. Irritability, weakness, numbness, anemia, loss of appetite, headache, personality changes, and confusion are some of the signs and symptoms associated with vitamin B12 depletion. Low levels of this vitamin may also be associated with an increased risk of colon cancer, heart disease, brain disorders, and birth defects.


Vitamin H (Biotin)

Low levels of biotin are associated with changes in skin color, inflammation of the skin, hair loss, muscle pain, anemia, loss of appetite, depression, insomnia, and elevated levels of cholesterol.


Vitamin K

The major symptom of vitamin K deficiency is an inability of the blood to clot properly, which may lead to excessive bleeding and a tendency to bruise easily.


Editorial Note

The selected depletions information presented here identifies some of the nutrients that may be depleted by certain medications. The signs and symptoms associated with nutrient deficiency may also indicate conditions other than nutrient deficiency. If you are experiencing any of the signs or symptoms mentioned, it does not necessarily mean that you are nutrient deficient. Nutrient depletion depends upon a number of factors, including your medical history, diet, and lifestyle as well as the length of time you have been taking the medication. Please consult your healthcare provider; he or she can best assess and address your individual healthcare needs, and determine if you are at risk for nutrient depletions from these medications as well as others not listed here.


Supporting Research

Albert MJ, Mathan VI, Baker SJ. Vitamin B12 synthesis by human small intestinal bacteria. Nature. 1980;283(5749):781-782.

Ames BN. Micronutrient deficiencies: A major cause of DNA damage. Ann NY Acad Sci. 2000;889:87-106.

Beaugerie L. [Diarrhea caused by antibiotic therapy]. Rev Prat. 1996;46(2):171-176.

Berger W. Incidence of severe side effects during therapy with sulfonylureas and biguanides. Horm Metab Res Suppl. 1985;15:111-115.

Carpentier JL, Bury J, Luyckx A, Lefebvre P. Vitamin B12 and folic acid serum levels in diabetics under various therapeutic regimens. Diabetes Metab. 1976;2(4):187-190.

Conly J, Stein K. Reduction of vitamin K2 concentrations in human liver associated with the use of broad spectrum antimicrobials. Clin Invest Med. 1994;17(6):531-539.

Covington T, ed. Nonprescription Drug Therapy Guiding Patient Self-Care. St Louis, MO: Facts and Comparisons; 1999:467-545.

Galland L. The Four Pillars of Healing. New York, NY: Random House; 1997:186-199.

Hill MJ. Intestinal flora and endogenous vitamin synthesis. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1997;6(Suppl 1):S43-45.

Lambie DG, Johnson RH. Drugs and folate metabolism. Drugs. 1985;30(2):145-155.

Naderer O, Nafziger AN, Bertino JS. Effects of moderate-dose versus high-dose trimethoprim on serum creatinine and creatinine clearance and adverse reactions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1997;41(11):2466-2470.

Nord CE. The effect of antimicrobial agents on the ecology of the human intestinal microflora. Vet Microbiol. 1993;35(3-4):193-197.

Powers HJ. Current knowledge concerning optimum nutritional status of riboflavin, niacin and pyridoxine. Proc Nutr Soc. 1999;58(2):435-440.

Stieger R, Baumgartner K, Neff U. [Dangerous hypothrombinemic hemorrhage in antibiotic therapy]. Helv ChirActa. 1992;58(6):775-778.

Taraszewski R, Harvey R, Rosman P. Death from drug-induced hemolytic anemia. Postgrad Med. 1989;85(7):79-80, 84.


Review Date: October 2000
Reviewed By: All depletions monographs have been reviewed by a team of experts including Derrick M. DeSilva, Jr., MD, Raritan Bay Medical Center, Perth Amboy, NJ; Jacqueline A. Hart, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Harvard University and Senior Medical Editor, A.D.A.M., Inc., Boston, MA; John Hinze, PharmD, NMD, Woodbine, IA; Ruth Marlin, MD, Medical Director and Director of Medical Education, Preventive Medicine Research Institute, Sausalito, CA; Brian T Sanderoff, PD, BS in Pharmacy, Clinical Assistant Professor, University of Maryland School of Pharmacy; President, Your Prescription for Health, Owings Mills, MD; Leonard Wisneski, MD, FACP, George Washington University, Rockville, MD; Ira Zunin, MD, MPH, MBA, President and Chairman, Hawaii State Consortium for Integrative Medicine, Honolulu, HI.

Copyright © 2004 A.D.A.M., Inc

The publisher does not accept any responsibility for the accuracy of the information or the consequences arising from the application, use, or misuse of any of the information contained herein, including any injury and/or damage to any person or property as a matter of product liability, negligence, or otherwise. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made in regard to the contents of this material. No claims or endorsements are made for any drugs or compounds currently marketed or in investigative use. This material is not intended as a guide to self-medication. The reader is advised to discuss the information provided here with a doctor, pharmacist, nurse, or other authorized healthcare practitioner and to check product information (including package inserts) regarding dosage, precautions, warnings, interactions, and contraindications before administering any drug, herb, or supplement discussed herein.

 
 

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