Richard's Whole Foods  
10% Off Register online today and receive 10% off your next in-store purchase.
Your E-mail:     
Healthy Recipes Reference Library Store Specials About Us Friday, May 05, 2006
Search Site
Reference Library
Sign In
My Account
Contact Us
Shopping Cart

Table of Contents > Treatment Options > Nutrition

What is clinical nutrition?

Clinical nutrition is the study of the relationship between food and the well-being of the body. More specifically, it is the science of nutrients and how they are digested, absorbed, transported, metabolized, stored, and discharged by the body. Besides studying how food works in the body, nutritionists are interested in how the environment affects the quality and safety of foods, and how these factors influence health and disease.

What are nutrients?

Nutrients are substances that are involved in the creation of every molecule in the body. The body needs more than 45 nutrients, and the ways that nutrients are used are as varied as the molecules, cells, and tissues they help to create. Carbohydrates, proteins, and fats (called macronutrients) are broken down (metabolized) to give the body energy. Vitamins and minerals (called micronutrients) are not themselves metabolized for energy, but they are crucial in helping the macronutrients convert to energy.

What is the history of clinical nutrition?

The study of human nutrition dates back to the 18th century, when the French chemist Lavoisier discovered that there was a relationship between our metabolism of food and the process of breathing. By the early 20th century, scientists had found that diseases were associated with certain diets (beri-beri, rickets, scurvy and pellagra). Later it was found that these diets lacked specific nutrients (namely vitamin B1 [thiamine], vitamin D, vitamin C, and vitamin B3 [niacin] respectively). By 1912, the Polish chemist Casimir Funk had found a substance (vitamin B1) that actually prevented beri-beri, and he named it "vitamine."

In the early 1940s, Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) were established by the National Research Council. The RDAs define the minimal nutrient intakes necessary for the prevention of basic deficiency diseases like beri-beri and rickets. Until recently, these guidelines were used to set nutritional adequacy standards for the general population.

Researchers and scientists also continue to uncover the therapeutic role of individual nutrients in the prevention and treatment of disease. For example, antioxidantslike beta-carotene, selenium, vitamin E, and vitamin C, particularly from foods, appear to protect against the development of heart disease, cancer, and other chronic degenerative diseases. Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) have been developed to show how much of a nutrient we need every day to maximize health and lower the risk of chronic disease (in contrast to RDAs which state the minimal amount to avoid disease secondary to deficiencies). The field of clinical nutrition has evolved into a practice that is increasingly incorporated into mainstream medical treatment.

What are nutritional supplements?

The term "nutritional supplement"refers to vitamins, minerals, and other food components that are used to support good health and treat illness. For example, plant compounds known as phytochemicals (found abundantly in tomatoes and soybeans, for example) have powerful disease-battling properties. While it's possible almost all of the time to successfully incorporate nutrients into your diet alone, supplementation can help maintain sufficient levels and produce specific desired effects. For example, supplementation with zinc supplementation has been shown to reduce the duration of the common cold and decrease the incidence of acute diarrhea in children.

How do vitamins and minerals work?

Vitamins and minerals play an essential role in the body's normal metabolism, growth, and development. They do this by helping the body to perform various tasks. For example, while a vitamin is not a source of energy in and of itself, it can provide the key the body needs to unlock energy stored in food. Some vitamins and minerals work together--such as the mineral zinc and vitamin A. Zinc enables the body to use vitamin A to promote good vision. Deficiencies in vitamin A may lead to night blindness, a condition in which the eyes have difficulty adjusting to darkness. Zinc supplementation, therefore, may prevent this condition by keeping vitamin A functioning normally. Supplementation alone, however, is not the answer to long-term good health. Combining a healthful diet with a regular exercise program and a positive mental attitude has been shown, time and again, to be the best bet for a healthy lifestyle.

What constitutes a healthful diet?

The optimal diet for improving health has to be individualized to meet your unique needs. The USDA food pyramid suggests that we use fat "sparingly," and that our daily diet include two to three servings of dairy products; two to three servings of meat, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, or nuts; three to five servings of vegetables; two to four servings of fruit; and six to eleven servings of bread, cereal, rice, or pasta. But the numbers alone don't tell the whole story. Our food needs are influenced by many factors, including age, gender, body size, pregnancy, and health. A clinical nutritionist can help you determine what type of diet is best for you.

What happens during a visit to a clinical nutritionist?

During the initial part of the visit, the clinical nutritionist will ask you questions about your medical history, family history, and personal lifestyle. The medical history might include questions about your diet, digestion, history of weight loss or gain, sleep and exercise patterns, and relaxation habits. Some clinical nutritionists will ask you to bring to your first meeting a 3-day food diary and list of any herbs, supplements, or medicines that you take regularly. Laboratory tests might be used to find any deficiencies and test organ function. This way, a nutritionist will get a full picture of your nutritional lifestyle.

During the second part of the visit, the nutritionist will recommend ways that you can fill the gaps and reduce the nutritional "overloads" in your diet. For example, if appropriate, he or she may suggest that you schedule your meals at different times or cut down on the amount of carbohydrates that you eat. He or she will also offer advice on specific nutritional supplements if necessary (see below). The nutritionist will then schedule follow-up visits to monitor the progression of your health.

What is clinical nutrition good for?

Studies show that eating habits play a major role in the development of certain chronic diseases (such as heart disease, obesity, cancer, and diabetes). Dietary changes can help to both prevent and treat these conditions. For example, lowering fat and cholesterol intake and adding whole grains to the diet can atherosclerosis (plaque build up in the arteries) which can lead to heart disease or stroke. Reducing caloric intake can help lower weight. Cutting down on simple sugars (glucose, sucrose, fructose, and lactose) can prevent diabetes, and high fiber diets (especially soluble fiber) can help control diabetes.

Scientists have found many other connections to diet and disease. In a study of 20,000 men, for example, one fish meal per week was linked to a 52% reduction in the risk of sudden death from a heart attack. Fish is high in omega-3 fatty acids, which are essential components of cells and can protect the heart from, for example, fatal arrhythmias (abnormal heart rhythm).

In another study of more than 42,000 women, those who ate lots of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy, and only lean meats lived longer. High intake of fruits, vegetables, and legumes is associated with a lower risk of developing heart disease.

There are numerous, ongoing studies regarding clinical nutrition. Some interesting results indicate that:

  • high dietary intake of folate (found in leafy greens, dry beans and peas, fortified cereals and grain products, and some fruits and vegetables) may lower risk of stroke and heart disease
  • eating small amounts of fish in pregnancy may protect against early delivery and low birth weight infants
  • iron supplementation in iron depleted women improves aerobic training ability
  • lutein and zeaxanthin (carotenoids) in the diet may reduce risk of cataracts
  • lutein from dietary sources (such as kale and spinach) may protect against colon cancer
  • flavonoids (found in broccoli, citrus fruits, apples, onions, and carrots) may protect against certain types of lung cancer
  • vitamin E (in the diet from fruits and vegetables) may reduce the risk of angina (chest pain) and heart attack in people with atherosclerosis

In hospitals, nutrition is used to improve the overall health of patients with a wide range of conditions. Examples of these conditions are AIDS, cancer, osteoporosis, lung disease, obesity, burns, metabolic disorders, and kidney, liver, and pancreatic disorders. Patients who need surgery are also supported with clinical nutrition.

Is there anything I should watch out for?

Adverse interactions between medications and nutritional supplements can happen; therefore, it is very important to inform your physician about any dietary supplements you are considering taking. If taking any supplements according to label directions unless otherwise advised by a qualified practitioner.

Be aware that there is little scientific information about the effect of so-called functional foods - foods to which vitamins, minerals, herbs, or other dietary substances are added --despite their growing popularity in the market place and claims of beneficial effects. Examples include calcium-fortified orange juice or soups containing Echinacea. .

There are many websites offering nutrition information, but not all are accurate. Visit the Tufts University Nutrition navigator at for a rating guide to nutrition websites.

Some common foods, including nuts, wheat gluten, dairy products, fish, shrimp, soy, bananas and eggs may trigger allergic reactions. If suspected, your doctor can test for such possible allergies..

How can I find a certified clinical nutritionist?

To find a clinical nutritionist in your area, contact the American Board of Nutrition at 205-975-8788, the American College of Nutrition at 212-777-1037, the Clinical Nutrition Certification Board at 972-250-2829, or the American Dietetic Association at 800-877-1600 (website: Specialists in many alternative health systems (including Traditional Chinese Medicine, Ayurveda, and naturopathy) also consider food a vital part of preventing and treating illness.

Supporting Research

Albert CM, Hennekens CH, O'Donnell CJ, et al. Fish consumption and risk of sudden cardiac death. JAMA. 1998;279(1):23-28.

Anonymous. Dairy Council Digest. 1997; 68(6):31-36.

Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, et al. Dietary intake of folate and risk of stroke in US men and women: NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Stroke. 2002;33:1183-1189.

Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, et al. Fruit and vegetable intake and risk of cardiovascular disease in US adults: the first National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;76(1):93-99.

Bazzano LA, He J, Ogden LG, et al. Legume consumption and risk of coronary heart disease in US men and women: NHANES I Epidemiologic Follow-up Study. Arch Intern Med. 2001;161(21):2573-2578.

Begany T. Concise Guide to Nutrition Counseling. In:.Micozzi MS, Bacchus AN, eds. ThePhysician's Guide to Alternative Medicine. Atlanta, Ga: American Health Consultants; 1999:63-66.

Brownlie T 4th, Utermohlen V, Hinton PS, Giordano C, Haas JD. Marginal iron deficiency without anemia impairs aerobic adaptation among previously untrained women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2002;75(4):734-742.

Chandalia M, Garg A, Lutjohann D, von Bergmann K, Grundy SM, Brinkley LJ. Beneficial effects of high dietary fiber intake in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(19):1392-1398.

Chasan-Taber L, Willett WC, Seddon JM, et al. A prospective study of carotenoid and vitamin A intakes and risk of cataract extraction in US women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(4):509-516.

Combs GF Jr. Discovery of the vitamins. In: The Vitamins: Fundamental Aspects in Nutrition and Health. San Diego, Calif: Academic Press, Inc.; 1992:9-50.

Deckelbaum RJ, Fisher EA, Winston M, et al. Summary of a scientific conference on preventive nutrition: pediatrics to geriatrics. Circulation. 1999;100(4):450-456.

Gaby AR. Alternative treatments for rheumatoid arthritis. Altern Med Rev. 1999;4(6):392-402.

Ghen MJ, Corso NA. Macronutrients. In: Novey DW. Clinician's Complete Reference to Complementary and Alternative Medicine. St. Louis, Mo: Mosby; 2000:566-575.

Health Media of America, Somer E. The Essential Guide to Vitamins and Minerals. New York, NY: HarperCollins Publishers; 1992.

Hu FB, Stampfer MJ, Manson JE, et al. Dietary protein and risk of ischemic heart disease in women. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(2):221-227.

Kant AK, Schatzkin A, Graubard BI, Schairer C. A prospective study of diet quality and mortality in women. JAMA. 2000;283(16):2109-2115.

Katan MB. Functional Foods. Lancet. 1999;354(9181):794.

Kendler BS. Nutritional strategies in cardiovascular disease control: an update on vitamins and conditionally essential nutrients. Prog Cardiovasc Nurs. 1999;14(4):124-129.

Krause MV, Mahan LK. Food, Nutrition & Diet Therapy. 7th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: W.B. Saunders Company; 1984.

Le Marchand L, Murphy SP, Hankin JH, Wilkens LR, Kolonel LN. Intake of flavonoids and lung cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2000;92(2):154-160.

Liu S, Stampfer MJ, Hu FB, et al. Whole-grain consumption and risk of coronary heart disease: results from the Nurses' Health Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999;70(3):412-419.

National Research Council. Recommended Dietary Allowances. 10th ed. Washington, DC: National Academy Press; 1989.

NIH Consensus conference. Optimal Calcium Intake. NIH Consensus Development Panel on Optimal Calcium Intake. JAMA. 1994;272(24):1942-1948.

Olsen SF, Secher NJ. Low consumption of seafood in early pregnancy as a risk factor for preterm delivery: a prospective cohort study. BMJ. 2002;324:447.

Shils ME, Olson JA, Shike M, eds. Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease. 8th ed. Media, Pa: Williams & Wilkins; 1994.

Simopoulos AP. Human requirements for n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Poult Sci. 2000;79(7):961-970.

Sinatra FR, Sinatra GM. Food fads and special diets: facts and fallacies in pediatric nutrition. In: Micozzi MS, Bacchus AN, eds. The Physician's Guide to Alternative Medicine. Atlanta, Ga: American Health Consultants; 1999;103-109.

Slattery ML, Benson J, Curtin K, Ma KN, Schaeffer D, Potter JD. Carotenoids and colon cancer. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000;71(2):575-582.

Spencer AP, Carson DS, Crouch MA. Vitamin E and coronary artery disease. Arch Intern Med. 1999;159(12):1313-1320.

US General Accounting Office. Food Safety: Improvements Needed in Overseeing the Safety of Dietary Supplements and "Functional Foods." Washington, DC: US General Accounting Office; July 2000. Publication GAO/RCED-00-156.

Werbach M. Overview. In: Micozzi MS, Bacchus AN, eds. The Physician's Guide to Alternative Medicine. Atlanta, Ga: American Health Consultants; 1999:61-62.

Whitney EN, Hamilton EM. Understanding Nutrition. 3rd ed. St. Paul, Minn: West Publishing Company; 1984.

Wuthrich B. Lethal or life-threatening allergic reactions to food. J Investig Allergol Clin Immunol. 2000;10(2):59-65.

Yates AA, Schlicker SA, Suitor CW. Dietary Reference Intakes: the new basis for recommendations for calcium and related nutrients, B vitamins, and choline. J Am Diet Assoc. 1998:98(6):699-706.

Review Date: December 2002
Reviewed By: Jacqueline A. Hart, MD, Department of Internal Medicine, Newton-Wellesley Hospital, Boston, Ma and Senior Medical Editor A.D.A.M., Inc.; R. Lynn Shumake, PD, Director, Alternative Medicine Apothecary, Blue Mountain Apothecary & Healing Arts, University of Maryland Medical Center, Glenwood, MD.

Copyright © 2004 A.D.A.M., Inc

The publisher does not accept any responsibility for the accuracy of the information or the consequences arising from the application, use, or misuse of any of the information contained herein, including any injury and/or damage to any person or property as a matter of product liability, negligence, or otherwise. No warranty, expressed or implied, is made in regard to the contents of this material. No claims or endorsements are made for any drugs or compounds currently marketed or in investigative use. This material is not intended as a guide to self-medication. The reader is advised to discuss the information provided here with a doctor, pharmacist, nurse, or other authorized healthcare practitioner and to check product information (including package inserts) regarding dosage, precautions, warnings, interactions, and contraindications before administering any drug, herb, or supplement discussed herein.

  Related Articles
View Articles

Home | Store Locations | Buy Online | Store Specials | About Us | Delicious Living | Reference Library | News & Features | Health Tools | Treatment Options | Healthy Recipes | Ingredient Glossary | My Account | Contact Us | Help | Shopping Cart | Privacy Policy | Terms of Use |

Powered By Living Naturally